S' ekeinin

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At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

Historical sources underline the close relations between Italian-speaking and Greek-speaking music. The conversations that developed with specific places, such as the Ionian Islands, the Dodecanese and Patras, as well as their results, are enough to highlight the strong ties between the two ethno-cultural groups. Furthermore, relationships were forged in places where the two ethnicities lived together, such as, for example, in the case of cosmopolitan Smyrna (Izmir) in the Ottoman Empire, or that of New York, where Italians and Greeks immigrated. When researching the historical material, it seems that one particular city in the Italian peninsula developed special relations with the large urban centers where Greek-speaking musicians played a leading role: it was Naples, with its famous Canzone Napoletana.  "S’ ekeinin", or "Ah mesa stin kardia", belongs to a corpus of songs from which the Greek protagonists borrowed music and/or lyrics from pre-existing Neapolitan-speaking songs. In many cases, the appropriations concern not only Neapolitan-speaking songs but the Italian language as a whole, since, often, the original Neapolitan-speaking songs were translated into Italian, from which the loan arose. These songs arrived at the Greek-speaking world either directly or indirectly, through other repertoire networks. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours, but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but plays a key role in its transformation. The appropriation by Greek musicians is twofold: on the one hand are the lyrics, which are now in Greek (often, in fact, they have nothing to do with the original ones), and, on the other hand, are the performance practices: different instrumentation, different singing style, often differences in melodic and rhythmic forms but also in the harmonies. Greek musicians adapt what they hear to their own condition, based on their own capabilities. After all, the mandolins, the guitars, the marches, polyphonic song and the bel canto singing style are characteristics that reveal the influences of the Canzone Napoletana on the Greek-speaking urban popular song. It should also be noted that, in various cases, often due to the great international success of the songs, the network that is finally formed is extremely complex and does not only concern Greek-Italian relations.


Regarding the paternity of the song, the following is noted:

In 1901, a musical score of the song entitled Oje ma', dammillo" in the name of Enrico Cannio (music) and Luigi Fragna (lyrics) was published in Napoli by the Bideri publishing house.

The first recording of the song was probably took place in Milan in December 1902 by Olimpia D’Avigny (Gramophone 2902b – 53289). In April 1904, it was recorded in Rome by Aristide Rota (Gramophone 2211h – 52055 & Zonophone X-92139).

However, an undated Greek musical score of the present song was published he A. Comendinger publishing house in Constantinople (Istanbul), according to which it is a composition by Giovanni Ingenito with lyrics by D. Vitalis. Please note that, based on the list of musical scores included on the first page of the said edition, and specifically from sub no. 66 with the title "Na i mikroula (Viens poupoule)", it is concluded that the musical score, which comes from the archive of Thomas Tamvakos, was published after or at least in 1902, since it was then that the French song was released for the first time (see here).

According to Panos Mavraganis’ website http://palia.kithara.gr, a musical score with the same authors was published by the Fexis publishing house as a transcription by Nikolaos Kokkinos under the title "Ah! mesa stin kardia", which constitutes the incipit of this recording. The practice of titling the song (and the corresponding musical score) from the first words of the lyrics was common at the time; this allows us to assume that this is the musical score of the same song in different version.

It was also published in the form of a musical score by the Christidis publishing house in Constantinople, in the series "Chant grecs avec accompagnement de Piano", number 109, in the name of the same composer.

The recordings of the song were made by the "usual suspects", the Greek estudiantinas. These bands took on the role of a peculiar "radio" of the time, introducing into discography the 
hits, which came from a variety of repertoires, Greek and foreign, and became popular in the, in any case cosmopolitan, circles of the large urban centers of the Ottoman Empire, in which Greek musicians played a leading role.

According to the database that emerged from 
Allan Kelly's research, the song seems to have been recorded earlier than this recording:

- "Ah mesa stin caardia sechini" [sic], Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina), HMV 124s – Z 0104501, Constantinople, 1905
- "Ah messa stin kardia" [sic], Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina), HMV 1472r – X 104553 & 4-14586, Constantinople, 1906
- "S’ ekeinin", Estudiantina Christodoulidis, Odeon CX 707 – No 31315, Constantinople, 1906 (this record)
- "
S’ ekeini", Athinaiki Trifonia (Athenian Triphony), Columbia 105091 – 7010 F, New York (?), 1924

The supposed, according to the Greek score, composer of the song Giovanni Ingenito was born in Palma Campania, a small community outside Naples, and immigrated to America shortly before 1920. In the book 
Mousourgoi tis Thrakis (Composers of Thrace) (Konstantzos, Tamvakos, Trikoupis, 2014), some information about the composer Giovanni Ingenito is presented. It is mentioned that during "his short stay in Constantinople (early 20th century) [...], he composed some works published by the Christidis and the Lehner music publishing houses in Constantinople. Those were the following: 'Choris kardia', 'Sérenade d' amore' based on D. Vitalis’ poetry and 'S’ ekeini' for voice and piano, and also 'Valse Constantinople' for piano or mandolin or violin."

In addition, Athanasios Trikoupis (
2015: 31) mentions that Ingenito took over as conductor of the orchestra of the "Neos Filarmonikos Syllogos Zakynthou" (Zakynthos’ New Philharmonic Association) in 1899.

The case of Ingenito is an extremely interesting chapter in the relations between Naples and the Greek-speaking world, as, from within the Greek network, we see him taking over posts and composing songs with Greek lyrics, but conveying the aesthetics of the 
Canzone Napoletana.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Lyrics by:
[Neapolitan lyrics: Fragna Luigi Greek lyrics: Vitalis D.]
Singer(s):
Estudiantina Christodoulidis
Recording date:
1906
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
No-31315
Matrix number:
CX-707
Duration:
3:21
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10¾ in. (27 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_31315_SEkeinin
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "S' ekeinin", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=5106

At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

Historical sources underline the close relations between Italian-speaking and Greek-speaking music. The conversations that developed with specific places, such as the Ionian Islands, the Dodecanese and Patras, as well as their results, are enough to highlight the strong ties between the two ethno-cultural groups. Furthermore, relationships were forged in places where the two ethnicities lived together, such as, for example, in the case of cosmopolitan Smyrna (Izmir) in the Ottoman Empire, or that of New York, where Italians and Greeks immigrated. When researching the historical material, it seems that one particular city in the Italian peninsula developed special relations with the large urban centers where Greek-speaking musicians played a leading role: it was Naples, with its famous Canzone Napoletana.  "S’ ekeinin", or "Ah mesa stin kardia", belongs to a corpus of songs from which the Greek protagonists borrowed music and/or lyrics from pre-existing Neapolitan-speaking songs. In many cases, the appropriations concern not only Neapolitan-speaking songs but the Italian language as a whole, since, often, the original Neapolitan-speaking songs were translated into Italian, from which the loan arose. These songs arrived at the Greek-speaking world either directly or indirectly, through other repertoire networks. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours, but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but plays a key role in its transformation. The appropriation by Greek musicians is twofold: on the one hand are the lyrics, which are now in Greek (often, in fact, they have nothing to do with the original ones), and, on the other hand, are the performance practices: different instrumentation, different singing style, often differences in melodic and rhythmic forms but also in the harmonies. Greek musicians adapt what they hear to their own condition, based on their own capabilities. After all, the mandolins, the guitars, the marches, polyphonic song and the bel canto singing style are characteristics that reveal the influences of the Canzone Napoletana on the Greek-speaking urban popular song. It should also be noted that, in various cases, often due to the great international success of the songs, the network that is finally formed is extremely complex and does not only concern Greek-Italian relations.


Regarding the paternity of the song, the following is noted:

In 1901, a musical score of the song entitled Oje ma', dammillo" in the name of Enrico Cannio (music) and Luigi Fragna (lyrics) was published in Napoli by the Bideri publishing house.

The first recording of the song was probably took place in Milan in December 1902 by Olimpia D’Avigny (Gramophone 2902b – 53289). In April 1904, it was recorded in Rome by Aristide Rota (Gramophone 2211h – 52055 & Zonophone X-92139).

However, an undated Greek musical score of the present song was published he A. Comendinger publishing house in Constantinople (Istanbul), according to which it is a composition by Giovanni Ingenito with lyrics by D. Vitalis. Please note that, based on the list of musical scores included on the first page of the said edition, and specifically from sub no. 66 with the title "Na i mikroula (Viens poupoule)", it is concluded that the musical score, which comes from the archive of Thomas Tamvakos, was published after or at least in 1902, since it was then that the French song was released for the first time (see here).

According to Panos Mavraganis’ website http://palia.kithara.gr, a musical score with the same authors was published by the Fexis publishing house as a transcription by Nikolaos Kokkinos under the title "Ah! mesa stin kardia", which constitutes the incipit of this recording. The practice of titling the song (and the corresponding musical score) from the first words of the lyrics was common at the time; this allows us to assume that this is the musical score of the same song in different version.

It was also published in the form of a musical score by the Christidis publishing house in Constantinople, in the series "Chant grecs avec accompagnement de Piano", number 109, in the name of the same composer.

The recordings of the song were made by the "usual suspects", the Greek estudiantinas. These bands took on the role of a peculiar "radio" of the time, introducing into discography the 
hits, which came from a variety of repertoires, Greek and foreign, and became popular in the, in any case cosmopolitan, circles of the large urban centers of the Ottoman Empire, in which Greek musicians played a leading role.

According to the database that emerged from 
Allan Kelly's research, the song seems to have been recorded earlier than this recording:

- "Ah mesa stin caardia sechini" [sic], Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina), HMV 124s – Z 0104501, Constantinople, 1905
- "Ah messa stin kardia" [sic], Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina), HMV 1472r – X 104553 & 4-14586, Constantinople, 1906
- "S’ ekeinin", Estudiantina Christodoulidis, Odeon CX 707 – No 31315, Constantinople, 1906 (this record)
- "
S’ ekeini", Athinaiki Trifonia (Athenian Triphony), Columbia 105091 – 7010 F, New York (?), 1924

The supposed, according to the Greek score, composer of the song Giovanni Ingenito was born in Palma Campania, a small community outside Naples, and immigrated to America shortly before 1920. In the book 
Mousourgoi tis Thrakis (Composers of Thrace) (Konstantzos, Tamvakos, Trikoupis, 2014), some information about the composer Giovanni Ingenito is presented. It is mentioned that during "his short stay in Constantinople (early 20th century) [...], he composed some works published by the Christidis and the Lehner music publishing houses in Constantinople. Those were the following: 'Choris kardia', 'Sérenade d' amore' based on D. Vitalis’ poetry and 'S’ ekeini' for voice and piano, and also 'Valse Constantinople' for piano or mandolin or violin."

In addition, Athanasios Trikoupis (
2015: 31) mentions that Ingenito took over as conductor of the orchestra of the "Neos Filarmonikos Syllogos Zakynthou" (Zakynthos’ New Philharmonic Association) in 1899.

The case of Ingenito is an extremely interesting chapter in the relations between Naples and the Greek-speaking world, as, from within the Greek network, we see him taking over posts and composing songs with Greek lyrics, but conveying the aesthetics of the 
Canzone Napoletana.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Lyrics by:
[Neapolitan lyrics: Fragna Luigi Greek lyrics: Vitalis D.]
Singer(s):
Estudiantina Christodoulidis
Recording date:
1906
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
No-31315
Matrix number:
CX-707
Duration:
3:21
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10¾ in. (27 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_31315_SEkeinin
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "S' ekeinin", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=5106

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