Tounte, Tounte

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The tune that uses the mimetic word "tounte" seems to be related to the region of Wallachia; the word comes from the Vlach dialect. In historical discography, the tune created an important tradition, coming mainly from Greek-speaking headliners, both from the popular and the scholar repertoires. These performances come from an even greater performative tradition, still alive even today, mainly in the folk repertoire. This performative reality has created powerful entities, that is, songs, which seem to communicate with that of "tounte". These are usually entitled "Tsompanopoulo", "Lagiarni", "Tsopanakos", "Skaros".

The theme was the focus of an excellent presentation by the famous collector Martin Schwartz, in the series of lectures "The Promiscuous World of Jewish Music Series" organized by Joshua Horowitz.

Some recordings from Greek discography are the following:

- "
Tounte psychokori", Athinaiki Estudiantina (Athenian Estudiantina), Gramophone 2505h – 14644, Constantinople (Istanbul) October–November 1904. W. Sinkler Darby was in charge of the recording
- "
Tounte tounte", Estudiantina Sideris, Odeon CX 691 – No 31330, Constantinople, 1906. Based on the data that emerged from the research in Greek historical discography, it seems that this recording is one of the first, if not the first, where a piano is heard (this record)
- "
Tounte tounte", Kyriakoula Antonopoulou, Panhellenion Pan 447 – 4000, America, 1919
- "
Tsopanakos imouna", Apostolos Predaris, Polydor 4688 ar – V 45104, Athens, 1927
- "
I ntanta", Giorgos Papasideris, Columbia DG CG 1028 – 6031, Athens, 1934. It is one of the extremely interesting cases in Greek discography, where the lyrics can have multiple meanings, one of them being of a sexual nature.

The tune, however, seems to have been introduced into the klezmer/Yiddish repertoire of the Jews living en masse in regions of Wallachia, who brought it to the American reality. Some recordings:

- "Tunda tunda" (Тунда Тунда), Aaron Lebedeff (Лебедевъ), Syrena 12560, 1912–1913
- "
Tunda tunda" (Тунда Тунда), Orkiestr Stella (Оркестр Стелла), Stella Concert Record (Стелла Концертъ Рекордъ) 13055, 1912–1913
- "
Er fort avek" (эр форт авек), Evokans State Jewish Choir Capella – Yegoshua Sheinin (Государственная еврейская хоровая капелла УССР Евоканс), Noginsk Plant ГРК 512 – 3278, Moscow, 1935

The first Greek recording under the title "
Tounte psychokori" was probably included in the dramatic romance in four acts "Psychokori" by the actor Ioannis Votsaris, "with the sweetest domestic songs", which was based on the German short story "Almenrausch und Edelweiss" by Hermann Schmid. The play, which in 1909 was published in a book by the Fexis publishing house, was presented by touring troupes in centers of Hellenism such as Thessaloniki, Alexandria, Odessa and Cyprus. It is also referred to by the titles "Psychokori i o listis Grikellas", "Psychokori i o archilistis Krinellas" and "O listarchos Krikelas i i Psychokori". According to the program of the play, it was presented in 1895 at the Odeion theater (formerly Verdis) in Constantinople by the "Alexiadis – Pantopoulou Panhellenic Drama Theater Troupe".

Panagiotis Kounadis also mentions the following (
2000: 361): "It is a series of well-known and unknown folk, popular and light songs that are included in the dramatic romance 'Psychokori', which, according to information given to us by Christos Solomonidis in his book 'To theatro sti Smyrni 1657–1922', premiered in Smyrna (Izmir) in 1903 by the 'Bonasera troupe' at the 'Prokymaia (Quay) theater'. The play was staged again in 1907 by the Gennadis Greek troupe at the 'Parthenon' theater in Smyrna, as well as in 1915 by the Mertikas troupe".

If we take into account the fact that Aaron Lebedeff, the performer of the Jewish version of the song for Syrena, was one of the most famous headliners of the Yiddish theater (whether this was the music theater or not) and lived and wandered as a professional actor in various regions, mainly of the Russian Empire, before emigrating to America around 1920, then it is possible that he heard the tune, in this particular form, when attending one of the performances of the play "Psychokori".

Syncretism, which is observed in the musical actualizations of the areas where Greeks lived and recorded, mainly in the area of folk-popular traditions, is monumental. It only takes one to listen to historical discography, which begins in Thessaloniki, Athens, Smyrna, Constantinople and New York since 1900. An essential part of this syncretism concerns the Jews, who constituted the main conduits in the uniquely diverse cultural heritage of the Greek-speaking world. They borrowed and lent, but they also carried more distant traditions from the places where they had previously lived and the places they had traveled. They constituted key interlocutors in the Greek universe, along with Muslim Ottomans and Turks, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Christians, Greek Catholics and Levantines, and composed a rich musical mosaic consisting of heterogeneous but 
co-existent palimpsests: a tank to which everyone added and from which everyone received something.

In historical discography under consideration, many cases of melodies which are still part of the repertoire of both Greeks and Jews have been identified. As for the Sephardic Jews, there are two categories: either Greek Sephardim who borrowed from and lent to the Greek Orthodox, or loans from non-Greek Sephardic repertoires, which co-spoke with the Greek ones. As for the Ashkenazim: we are talking about a corpus of discographical material in which versions of the same works were found in both the Greek repertoire and in the Ashkenazi one, which is often found as klezmer/Yiddish.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
Unknown
Singer(s):
Estudiantina Sideris
Recording date:
1906
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
No-31330
Matrix number:
CX-691
Duration:
3:29
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_31330_ToundeTounde
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Tounte, Tounte", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=4414

The tune that uses the mimetic word "tounte" seems to be related to the region of Wallachia; the word comes from the Vlach dialect. In historical discography, the tune created an important tradition, coming mainly from Greek-speaking headliners, both from the popular and the scholar repertoires. These performances come from an even greater performative tradition, still alive even today, mainly in the folk repertoire. This performative reality has created powerful entities, that is, songs, which seem to communicate with that of "tounte". These are usually entitled "Tsompanopoulo", "Lagiarni", "Tsopanakos", "Skaros".

The theme was the focus of an excellent presentation by the famous collector Martin Schwartz, in the series of lectures "The Promiscuous World of Jewish Music Series" organized by Joshua Horowitz.

Some recordings from Greek discography are the following:

- "
Tounte psychokori", Athinaiki Estudiantina (Athenian Estudiantina), Gramophone 2505h – 14644, Constantinople (Istanbul) October–November 1904. W. Sinkler Darby was in charge of the recording
- "
Tounte tounte", Estudiantina Sideris, Odeon CX 691 – No 31330, Constantinople, 1906. Based on the data that emerged from the research in Greek historical discography, it seems that this recording is one of the first, if not the first, where a piano is heard (this record)
- "
Tounte tounte", Kyriakoula Antonopoulou, Panhellenion Pan 447 – 4000, America, 1919
- "
Tsopanakos imouna", Apostolos Predaris, Polydor 4688 ar – V 45104, Athens, 1927
- "
I ntanta", Giorgos Papasideris, Columbia DG CG 1028 – 6031, Athens, 1934. It is one of the extremely interesting cases in Greek discography, where the lyrics can have multiple meanings, one of them being of a sexual nature.

The tune, however, seems to have been introduced into the klezmer/Yiddish repertoire of the Jews living en masse in regions of Wallachia, who brought it to the American reality. Some recordings:

- "Tunda tunda" (Тунда Тунда), Aaron Lebedeff (Лебедевъ), Syrena 12560, 1912–1913
- "
Tunda tunda" (Тунда Тунда), Orkiestr Stella (Оркестр Стелла), Stella Concert Record (Стелла Концертъ Рекордъ) 13055, 1912–1913
- "
Er fort avek" (эр форт авек), Evokans State Jewish Choir Capella – Yegoshua Sheinin (Государственная еврейская хоровая капелла УССР Евоканс), Noginsk Plant ГРК 512 – 3278, Moscow, 1935

The first Greek recording under the title "
Tounte psychokori" was probably included in the dramatic romance in four acts "Psychokori" by the actor Ioannis Votsaris, "with the sweetest domestic songs", which was based on the German short story "Almenrausch und Edelweiss" by Hermann Schmid. The play, which in 1909 was published in a book by the Fexis publishing house, was presented by touring troupes in centers of Hellenism such as Thessaloniki, Alexandria, Odessa and Cyprus. It is also referred to by the titles "Psychokori i o listis Grikellas", "Psychokori i o archilistis Krinellas" and "O listarchos Krikelas i i Psychokori". According to the program of the play, it was presented in 1895 at the Odeion theater (formerly Verdis) in Constantinople by the "Alexiadis – Pantopoulou Panhellenic Drama Theater Troupe".

Panagiotis Kounadis also mentions the following (
2000: 361): "It is a series of well-known and unknown folk, popular and light songs that are included in the dramatic romance 'Psychokori', which, according to information given to us by Christos Solomonidis in his book 'To theatro sti Smyrni 1657–1922', premiered in Smyrna (Izmir) in 1903 by the 'Bonasera troupe' at the 'Prokymaia (Quay) theater'. The play was staged again in 1907 by the Gennadis Greek troupe at the 'Parthenon' theater in Smyrna, as well as in 1915 by the Mertikas troupe".

If we take into account the fact that Aaron Lebedeff, the performer of the Jewish version of the song for Syrena, was one of the most famous headliners of the Yiddish theater (whether this was the music theater or not) and lived and wandered as a professional actor in various regions, mainly of the Russian Empire, before emigrating to America around 1920, then it is possible that he heard the tune, in this particular form, when attending one of the performances of the play "Psychokori".

Syncretism, which is observed in the musical actualizations of the areas where Greeks lived and recorded, mainly in the area of folk-popular traditions, is monumental. It only takes one to listen to historical discography, which begins in Thessaloniki, Athens, Smyrna, Constantinople and New York since 1900. An essential part of this syncretism concerns the Jews, who constituted the main conduits in the uniquely diverse cultural heritage of the Greek-speaking world. They borrowed and lent, but they also carried more distant traditions from the places where they had previously lived and the places they had traveled. They constituted key interlocutors in the Greek universe, along with Muslim Ottomans and Turks, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Christians, Greek Catholics and Levantines, and composed a rich musical mosaic consisting of heterogeneous but 
co-existent palimpsests: a tank to which everyone added and from which everyone received something.

In historical discography under consideration, many cases of melodies which are still part of the repertoire of both Greeks and Jews have been identified. As for the Sephardic Jews, there are two categories: either Greek Sephardim who borrowed from and lent to the Greek Orthodox, or loans from non-Greek Sephardic repertoires, which co-spoke with the Greek ones. As for the Ashkenazim: we are talking about a corpus of discographical material in which versions of the same works were found in both the Greek repertoire and in the Ashkenazi one, which is often found as klezmer/Yiddish.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
Unknown
Singer(s):
Estudiantina Sideris
Recording date:
1906
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
No-31330
Matrix number:
CX-691
Duration:
3:29
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_31330_ToundeTounde
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Tounte, Tounte", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=4414

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See also