Zigolet

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At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

Austria’s geographical position naturally renders the country the center of European developments, but also an important sort of conduit for the diffusion of tangible and intangible products from all and towards all directions. However, it is not a popular part of the relevant historiographical research as far as the relations between the Greek-speaking and the rest of the world. Not to mention that that within the musicological field, research is almost completely absent. However, geography often speaks for itself: The Habsburg Empire (Austro-Hungarian Empire after the Compromise of 1867) bordered the Ottoman Empire to the south. Both claimed territories of the later Yugoslavia, and especially those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which, on the one hand, accommodated a notable Muslim population, and, on the other hand, communicated directly with the historical region of Macedonia and the Greek-speaking population that lived there. Vienna was a unique melting pot of cultures; the arts, dominated by music, were experiencing an unprecedented boom. A particular theatrical genre, which developed in various forms throughout Europe, was at the heart of Viennese creation: it was the Volkstheater (the “folk theater”), which was part of a long tradition of comical performing arts, with music playing a dominant role. According to the relevant discourse, after 1850 this style is transformed in the Viennese operetta, which had an unprecedented dynamic in terms of production of new works. Soon, discography would enter this network, and together with the already vibrant reality of the music publishing houses, would contribute to the mass diffusion of the Viennese operetta both in Europe and America. The leading element of these works was, among other things, the waltz, a trademark of the Austrian capital, as well as its main exported cultural product all over the world. The role played by the Strauss family was a catalyst in this development. These trends reached and were appropriated by the Greek-speaking world, which incorporated them into its own conditions. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours , but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but also plays a key role in its transformation. It should also be noted that, in various cases, often due to the great international success of the songs, the resulting network is extremely complex and does not only concern Greek-Austrian relations.

This recording is an adaptation with Greek lyrics of the song "Gigolette" from the second act of the three-act operetta "Der Libellentanz" (English title: "The Three Graces"), set to music by Franz Lehár and German libretto by Alfred Maria Willner. It premiered on March 21, 1923, at the Stadttheater in Vienna. The operetta, which had been presented in its Italian version in 1922 at the Teatro Lirico, in Milan, under the title "La danza delle libellule", with a libretto by Carlo Lombardo, was a revised and reworked version of one of the composer's less successful operettas, "Der Sterngucker" (premiered at the Theater in der Josefstadt, in Vienna, January 14, 1916). In 1926, Franz Lehár presented another version of the operetta under the title "Gigolette".

Recordings of the song in English, Italian, Portuguese, French, Spanish as well as instrumental performances have so far been identified in historical discography. For example:

- Pizzirani - Trio, Zurich, July 1923 (Odoen G 1619 - 316023)
- Teresa de Matienzo, New York, December 1923 (Okeh S 72177 - 9134)
- La danza de las libélulas -Canción de las Gigollettes, Carlos Gardel, Argentina, 1923 (Disco Nacional Odeon 18074 A)
- Orquesta Excelsior, Barcelona, February 12, 1924 (Gramophone BS 1179-2 - 260916 - AE1059)
- "Sketch comique avec motif musical sur Gigolette", Les Fratellini, Paris, 1924-1925 (Odeon xp 6437-1 - 111.950)
- "The Three Graces: Gigolette", The Romain Orchestra, London, February 13, 1924 (Grampone Bb 4193-2 3-932 B 1781)
- Jack Buchanan, New York, November 20, 1925 (Columbia W141295 - 514D)
- Lucienne Boyer, Paris, October-December 1930 (Columbia WL2591 - DF 388)
- Paschoal Melillo e seus Guittaristas, Brazil, 1952 (Copacabana M 246 -5003)

The operetta under the title "Treis agapes" premiered in Athens, in 1928, by the Irini Vassilaki troupe.

The musical score of the song, with lyrics different from those of the present recording, was published in Athens by the Gaitanos - Konstantinidis - Starr publishing house.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
[Italian libretto: Lombardo Carlo German libretto: Willner Alfred Maria Greek lyrics: Unknown]
Singer(s):
Panellinios Estudiantina (Panhellenic Estudiantina)
Orchestra-Performers:
Panellinios Estudiantina (Panhellenic Estudiantina)
Orchestra director:
Savaris Giorgos
Recording date:
1925
Recording location:
Athens
Language(s):
Greek
Dance / Rhythm:
Fox trot
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
Α 154015
Matrix number:
Gο 4
Duration:
2:44
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_A154015_Zigolette
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Zigolet", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=10268

At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

Austria’s geographical position naturally renders the country the center of European developments, but also an important sort of conduit for the diffusion of tangible and intangible products from all and towards all directions. However, it is not a popular part of the relevant historiographical research as far as the relations between the Greek-speaking and the rest of the world. Not to mention that that within the musicological field, research is almost completely absent. However, geography often speaks for itself: The Habsburg Empire (Austro-Hungarian Empire after the Compromise of 1867) bordered the Ottoman Empire to the south. Both claimed territories of the later Yugoslavia, and especially those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which, on the one hand, accommodated a notable Muslim population, and, on the other hand, communicated directly with the historical region of Macedonia and the Greek-speaking population that lived there. Vienna was a unique melting pot of cultures; the arts, dominated by music, were experiencing an unprecedented boom. A particular theatrical genre, which developed in various forms throughout Europe, was at the heart of Viennese creation: it was the Volkstheater (the “folk theater”), which was part of a long tradition of comical performing arts, with music playing a dominant role. According to the relevant discourse, after 1850 this style is transformed in the Viennese operetta, which had an unprecedented dynamic in terms of production of new works. Soon, discography would enter this network, and together with the already vibrant reality of the music publishing houses, would contribute to the mass diffusion of the Viennese operetta both in Europe and America. The leading element of these works was, among other things, the waltz, a trademark of the Austrian capital, as well as its main exported cultural product all over the world. The role played by the Strauss family was a catalyst in this development. These trends reached and were appropriated by the Greek-speaking world, which incorporated them into its own conditions. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours , but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but also plays a key role in its transformation. It should also be noted that, in various cases, often due to the great international success of the songs, the resulting network is extremely complex and does not only concern Greek-Austrian relations.

This recording is an adaptation with Greek lyrics of the song "Gigolette" from the second act of the three-act operetta "Der Libellentanz" (English title: "The Three Graces"), set to music by Franz Lehár and German libretto by Alfred Maria Willner. It premiered on March 21, 1923, at the Stadttheater in Vienna. The operetta, which had been presented in its Italian version in 1922 at the Teatro Lirico, in Milan, under the title "La danza delle libellule", with a libretto by Carlo Lombardo, was a revised and reworked version of one of the composer's less successful operettas, "Der Sterngucker" (premiered at the Theater in der Josefstadt, in Vienna, January 14, 1916). In 1926, Franz Lehár presented another version of the operetta under the title "Gigolette".

Recordings of the song in English, Italian, Portuguese, French, Spanish as well as instrumental performances have so far been identified in historical discography. For example:

- Pizzirani - Trio, Zurich, July 1923 (Odoen G 1619 - 316023)
- Teresa de Matienzo, New York, December 1923 (Okeh S 72177 - 9134)
- La danza de las libélulas -Canción de las Gigollettes, Carlos Gardel, Argentina, 1923 (Disco Nacional Odeon 18074 A)
- Orquesta Excelsior, Barcelona, February 12, 1924 (Gramophone BS 1179-2 - 260916 - AE1059)
- "Sketch comique avec motif musical sur Gigolette", Les Fratellini, Paris, 1924-1925 (Odeon xp 6437-1 - 111.950)
- "The Three Graces: Gigolette", The Romain Orchestra, London, February 13, 1924 (Grampone Bb 4193-2 3-932 B 1781)
- Jack Buchanan, New York, November 20, 1925 (Columbia W141295 - 514D)
- Lucienne Boyer, Paris, October-December 1930 (Columbia WL2591 - DF 388)
- Paschoal Melillo e seus Guittaristas, Brazil, 1952 (Copacabana M 246 -5003)

The operetta under the title "Treis agapes" premiered in Athens, in 1928, by the Irini Vassilaki troupe.

The musical score of the song, with lyrics different from those of the present recording, was published in Athens by the Gaitanos - Konstantinidis - Starr publishing house.

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
[Italian libretto: Lombardo Carlo German libretto: Willner Alfred Maria Greek lyrics: Unknown]
Singer(s):
Panellinios Estudiantina (Panhellenic Estudiantina)
Orchestra-Performers:
Panellinios Estudiantina (Panhellenic Estudiantina)
Orchestra director:
Savaris Giorgos
Recording date:
1925
Recording location:
Athens
Language(s):
Greek
Dance / Rhythm:
Fox trot
Publisher:
Odeon
Catalogue number:
Α 154015
Matrix number:
Gο 4
Duration:
2:44
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Odeon_A154015_Zigolette
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Zigolet", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=10268

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