Karolina

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At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

One of these fascinating networks concerns French songs, which were appropriated by Greek musicians, among others. The appropriation is twofold: on the one hand are the lyrics, which are now in Greek (often, in fact, they have nothing to do with the original ones), and, on the other hand, the performance practices: different instrumentation, different singing style, often differences in melodic and rhythmic forms and in the harmonies. Greek musicians adapt what they heard to their own condition, based on their own capabilities. The French ecumene lends its chansons, which carry a dynamic tradition of songwriting and performance. Paris, Montmartre and the cabarets artistiques influence the music of the world. The atmosphere from the Chat Noir, which had been operating since 1881, also reaches the Greek world. Music venues of this type, the famous “cafés chantants”, appeared in Athens but also in other urban centers of the Greek state. These French songs were exported to the Greek-speaking world either directly or indirectly, through other repertoire networks. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours, but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but also plays a key role in its transformation.

This song was originally recorded by
Vasilis Sideris' Smyrnaiki Estudiantina (Smyrnaean Estudiantina), between December 15-18, 1911, in Smyrna (Izmir), for Gramophone. The sound engineer Arthur Clarke was in charge of the recording. 

The song was also recorded by Orfeon on the present record around 1912, in Constantinople (Istanbul), with the Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina).

The Greek lyrics of the song, according to the musical score published by the Christidis publishing house in Constantinople entitled "Karolina - Karolina (ta stena foustania)" ("Karolina - Karolina [the tight dresses]"), belong to N. Vlyssidis. The score was also published by the G. Fexis publishing house in Athens with the same title.

The song is a Greek adaptation of the French song "Caroline! Caroline!", set to music by Vincent Scotto (1874–1952) and lyrics by Vincent Telly (1881–1957) and Ferdinand-Louis Bénech (1875–1925). According to the 
musical score, it was sung by Georgel (Georges Job) at the Eldorado theater in Paris.

It was recorded with the title "Caroline! Caroline!", in 1909, on an 
Edison (18123) cylinder by Eugène Mansuelle, as well as on records for various labels by Paul Lack.

The Phonoscène film (n° 675) entitled "Caroline!", from 1912, by the Société des Etablissements L. Gaumont, was preserved, (see here at 1:40''), and includes a scene with a couple of unidentified actors or singers in which the man performs the song of the same title.

The English song "Angelina" was included, as evidenced by both the record label of "
Angelina" (Columbia-Rena 27070–1424, with Harry Fay) and the English music score (London, 1909, Metzler & Co.), in the revised version of the musical comedy "Our Miss Gibbs" that premiered at the Gaiety Theater in London on January 23, 1909.

In 1910, again with the title "Angelina", it was recorded by Gramophone Monarch Record (on the one-sided record under number 02253) with George Grossmith Junior, who participated in the performances of "
Our Miss Gibbs" at the Gaiety Theater in London.

An instrumental version of the song was released in 1911 with the title "
Angelina (Caroline! Caroline!)" by Zonophone (5772).

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
[French lyrics: Telly Vincent, Bénech Ferdinand-Louis
English lyrics: Ross Adrian (Ropes Arthur Reed), George Grossmith Jr.
Greek lyrics: Vlyssidis N.]
Singer(s):
Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina)
Recording date:
1912 (?)
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Orfeon
Catalogue number:
No-10113
Matrix number:
447
Duration:
3:11
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Orfeon_10113_Karolina
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Karolina", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=4446

At the beginning of the 20th century, Europe is living in peace and prosperity. The “Belle Époque” is an outgrowth of previous important historical events and developments. The networks that are created and which evolve funnel both people and their products, tangible and intangible. It is within this multi-layered world that sound recording and sound reproduction is invented. Early record labels send mobile crews literally all over the world to record local musicians. The range of the repertoire is endless. Cosmopolitanism in large urban centers favors polystylisms and polymorphisms. Colonialism, revolutions, conflicts, refugee flows; the theater, cinema, radio, photography, orchestras’ tours, but also circulations in all kinds of commercial channels in a world that evolves dynamically and anisotropically, form a complex network of “centers” and “peripheries” in alternating roles setting musical idioms in motion, both literally and figuratively. The network in which the Greek-speaking urban popular song participates, constantly conversing with its co-tenants, is magnificent. Discography has already provided important tools in understanding the relationships that developed between “national” repertoires. The result of this ongoing research is “Cosmopolitanism in Greek Historical Discography”.

One of these fascinating networks concerns French songs, which were appropriated by Greek musicians, among others. The appropriation is twofold: on the one hand are the lyrics, which are now in Greek (often, in fact, they have nothing to do with the original ones), and, on the other hand, the performance practices: different instrumentation, different singing style, often differences in melodic and rhythmic forms and in the harmonies. Greek musicians adapt what they heard to their own condition, based on their own capabilities. The French ecumene lends its chansons, which carry a dynamic tradition of songwriting and performance. Paris, Montmartre and the cabarets artistiques influence the music of the world. The atmosphere from the Chat Noir, which had been operating since 1881, also reaches the Greek world. Music venues of this type, the famous “cafés chantants”, appeared in Athens but also in other urban centers of the Greek state. These French songs were exported to the Greek-speaking world either directly or indirectly, through other repertoire networks. In any case, the circulation of musics is already a reality before the 20th century with theatrical and musical performances tours, but also with the networks of music publishing houses. Discography is not only embedded in this context, but also plays a key role in its transformation.

This song was originally recorded by
Vasilis Sideris' Smyrnaiki Estudiantina (Smyrnaean Estudiantina), between December 15-18, 1911, in Smyrna (Izmir), for Gramophone. The sound engineer Arthur Clarke was in charge of the recording. 

The song was also recorded by Orfeon on the present record around 1912, in Constantinople (Istanbul), with the Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina).

The Greek lyrics of the song, according to the musical score published by the Christidis publishing house in Constantinople entitled "Karolina - Karolina (ta stena foustania)" ("Karolina - Karolina [the tight dresses]"), belong to N. Vlyssidis. The score was also published by the G. Fexis publishing house in Athens with the same title.

The song is a Greek adaptation of the French song "Caroline! Caroline!", set to music by Vincent Scotto (1874–1952) and lyrics by Vincent Telly (1881–1957) and Ferdinand-Louis Bénech (1875–1925). According to the 
musical score, it was sung by Georgel (Georges Job) at the Eldorado theater in Paris.

It was recorded with the title "Caroline! Caroline!", in 1909, on an 
Edison (18123) cylinder by Eugène Mansuelle, as well as on records for various labels by Paul Lack.

The Phonoscène film (n° 675) entitled "Caroline!", from 1912, by the Société des Etablissements L. Gaumont, was preserved, (see here at 1:40''), and includes a scene with a couple of unidentified actors or singers in which the man performs the song of the same title.

The English song "Angelina" was included, as evidenced by both the record label of "
Angelina" (Columbia-Rena 27070–1424, with Harry Fay) and the English music score (London, 1909, Metzler & Co.), in the revised version of the musical comedy "Our Miss Gibbs" that premiered at the Gaiety Theater in London on January 23, 1909.

In 1910, again with the title "Angelina", it was recorded by Gramophone Monarch Record (on the one-sided record under number 02253) with George Grossmith Junior, who participated in the performances of "
Our Miss Gibbs" at the Gaiety Theater in London.

An instrumental version of the song was released in 1911 with the title "
Angelina (Caroline! Caroline!)" by Zonophone (5772).

Research and text: Leonardos Kounadis and 
Nikos Ordoulidis

Author (Composer):
Lyrics by:
[French lyrics: Telly Vincent, Bénech Ferdinand-Louis
English lyrics: Ross Adrian (Ropes Arthur Reed), George Grossmith Jr.
Greek lyrics: Vlyssidis N.]
Singer(s):
Elliniki Estudiantina (Greek Estudiantina)
Recording date:
1912 (?)
Recording location:
Constantinople (Istanbul)
Language(s):
Greek
Publisher:
Orfeon
Catalogue number:
No-10113
Matrix number:
447
Duration:
3:11
Item location:
Kounadis Archive Record Library
Physical description:
10 in. (25 cm)
Source:
Kounadis Archive
ID:
Orfeon_10113_Karolina
Licensing:
cc
Reference link:
Kounadis Archive, "Karolina", 2019, https://vmrebetiko.gr/en/item-en?id=4446

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